ESRI Discussion Paper Series No.304
Impact of School Quality on Student Achievements: Evidence from a Twin Survey in Japan

Makiko Nakamuro
Associate Professor, Faculty of Policy Management, Keio University
Takashi Oshio
Professor, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University
Tomohiko Inui
Professor, College of Economics, Nihon University


This paper attempted to measure the causal effect of high school quality on academic achievement by estimating education production function in Japan. The authors combined school quality measures retrieved from official statistics with the large sample of twins collected through the web-based survey. This combined dataset enabled us to overcome selection bias and control for unobserved family and genetic characteristics of an individual. The results drawn from the empirical result suggest that school quality at the high school level are not associated with student achievements, but are associated with earnings measured in later life. Therefore, our answer to the specific causal question, does school quality matter in Japan, is “no” for academic achievements, but “yes” for labor market outcomes. The results also show that unobserved family components may play a crucial role in determining academic achievements.

Structure of the whole text(PDF-Format 1 File)

  1. Full Text別ウィンドウで開きます。(PDF-Format 230 KB)
  2. page2
  3. page10
    Empirical Models
  4. page12
  5. page17
    Empirical Results
    1. page17
      Main results
    2. page22
      Effects on Labor Market Outcomes
  6. page23
  7. page26
    Table 1: Household Educational Expenditures on Schools and Shadow Education
  8. page27
    Table 2: Descriptive Statistics
  9. page28
    Table 3-1: Empirical Results (OLS, Entire Sample)
  10. page29
    Table 3-2: Empirical Results (Twin-Fixed Effects, Entire Sample)
  11. page30
    Table 3-3: Empirical Results (OLS, MZ Twins)
  12. page31
    Table 3-4: Empirical Results (Twin-Fixed Effects, MZ Twins)
  13. page32
    Table 3-5: Empirical Results (OLS, DZ Twins)
  14. page33
    Table 3-6: Empirical Results (Twin-Fixed Effects, DZ Twins)
  15. page34
    Table 3-7: Empirical Results (Twin-Fixed Effects)
  16. page35
  • 1-6-1 Nagata-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8914, Japan.
    Tel: +81-3-5253-2111